This paper is a study of Bagatugtun syume, a Kalmyk Buddhist temple erected in 1912 in the former Russian Empire. In this paper I examine the architectural features of the building and provide an insight into the building's unique blend of traditional Russian Orthodox Church architecture with that of the broader international Gelugpa architectural style.
This paper is a study of the mandala inspired temples found in the Buddhist khuruls of the Buzava (Don) Kalmyks in the Don Cossack Host of the Russian Empire. In this paper I examine this unique form of Kalmyk Buddhist architecture and situate the temple construction against the religious and political developments taking place in nineteenth century Tsarist Russia.
This paper is a study of the non-celibate Kalmyk Buddhist religious servitors of the Ural Cossack Host in the Russian Empire. To examine the issues of religious and ritual authority among these religious servitors, I use the theories developed by Martin A. Mills during his study of Gelugpa monasticism. The paper aims to show how the Ural Kalmyks managed to accommodate their Buddhist traditions to the military lifestyle expected of a Cossack in Imperial Russia.